Why Strong Students Do Not Always Lock In High SAT Scores - And How to Change That
While there remains a strong correlation between high grades and high SAT scores, it is especially exasperating for parents to see their diligent, competent seniors failing to complement their high grades with high SAT scores. Since explanations may lead to solutions, allow me to hypothesize based on my experience with high school test-takers.
Correlation does not equal causation
Though the correlation between high grades and SAT scores is strong, it is wrong to say that mastering a school's English and Math curricula will result in 1800+ SAT scores. Any causation is better attributable to work ethic by the student than to a transfer of skills in traditional curricula, especially in the English section. Since the SAT tests very coachable skills, a student's desire to master those skills plays a large role in her/his performance.
The correlation that I believe has the highest elements of causation is parental expectations. It is no secret that the children of doctors, engineers, lawyers, and professors garner a huge share of the highest SAT scores. Though some attribute "smarts" to genetics, I am not one of them. Most children of well-educated professionals have high standards that they are 1) exposed to and 2) motivated to meet.
Exposure and motivation
For students at a strong public school or even a mediocre prep school, exposure to the college admissions process and standards comes almost automatically. For motivated students in schools that send few kids to competitive colleges, I recommend that their parents stay in touch with parents who chose a college preparatory school for their kids. If they do not know such parents, consult with a college placement counselor. Form a posse to seek out the information that many other kids are exposed to beginning in 9th grade. I held my first SAT class in south central Los Angeles. The four kids who chose to be in the class were daughters and sons of working class Mexican Americans. Three of them are among Ivy Bound's top improvers and one now holds her school's record for highest-ever SAT score. As far as exposure to the SAT itself, that's easy --$19.95 at Barnes & Noble buys any student The Official SAT Study Guide, which contains eight simulated SATs.
The new Math and the new Reading formats that will appear beginning in March 2005 are not being well exposed. We recommend that students monitor www.collegeboard.com or sign on with a test prep company. Some material will be revealed on these companies' web sites. The Princeton Review (www.review.com), and Ivy Bound (www.ivybound.net) contain helpful free information. Both companies, along with Kaplan (www.kaplan.com) will keep their clients totally abreast of changes.
How does a student get the desire to master the SAT? I cannot say. Fear of not keeping up with peers who are bound for competitive colleges is a good motivator for some. Fear of failing their parents' expectations is a motivator for others, but a dangerous one. (The reward for meeting such expectations is probably a more positive motivator.) Though far from a scientific survey, I find that the students who have improved the most just want to meet a certain number for the sake of meeting that number. By this I mean they are not telling me "I just have to get in to __________ university," or "I have to meet the score my dad expects," but "I want a 2100."
Here's one reason why "I want a 2100" is a good attitude and can lead to success: it divorces the consequences of the test from the studying and doing of the test. Consequences are the things we both aspire to and fear. Unfortunately fear too often takes over. In the process a student's mental energies along with emotional energies are distracted. When the student can remind himself "here's how I'm supposed to do this test," instead of "here's what happens to me if I don't get into Stanford," the anxiety is reduced.
One thing that dampens desire is the attitude that "the SAT is a stupid test." A test that helps evaluate grammar, vocabulary, reading comprehension, math, and logical reasoning is not a stupid test. Anyone in your child's midst who is purveying that attitude should be quarantined, teachers included. The current SAT is a decent test of skills and knowledge that are important in higher education, if not everyday life. It could be a broader, less coachable and thus fairer test, and I'd like to see it untimed, but on the whole it is a well-crafted test and is no longer racially biased. If not convinced, see my piece on Why the SAT Is a Decent Standard.
Why SAT Critical Reading Scores May Not Meet Expectations
A reason why even the diligent child of two well-educated professionals might not lock in a good SAT score is that the child's verbal education never targeted skills tested on the SAT. Particularly if the child is not an avid reader, s/he is unlikely to absorb the vocabulary tested on the later (tougher) SAT questions. Drilling vocabulary can only go so far, and it's not especially fun. I don't blame schools for eschewing vocabulary drills, but in its place they MUST instill a reading ethic.
A failure to target skills includes a neglect to instill careful reading. Though students at fine schools might proudly cover Dickens, Hemingway, Hawthorne, and Wharton in one semester, they are rarely called upon to parse a single paragraph, sentence by sentence, word by word. The SAT tests short, dense passages. The makers of the test excerpt passages from fiction and scholarly reviews and further edit them so as to pack a lot of information into a mere 60 lines. Few high school teachers invoke similar passages, followed by questions where the right answer sometimes turns on the forcefulness of a single word. (I took nine English courses at a very good prep school; only when covering Shakespeare and a few other poems was I asked to analyze a sentence word-for-word.) Yet SAT Reading Comp success is driven by careful analysis, both at the "big picture" and at the "detail" level. A careful reader, armed with good vocabulary and a lack of carelessness, should score a 700 on the verbal.
Why SAT Math Scores May Not Meet Expectations
The math section of the SAT has more questions that directly correlate with a traditional high school curriculum than does the verbal. Nevertheless, many "A" math students receive only mid-range scores on the SAT math.
One reason is that even in a well-taught math class, the students never see questions that the SAT asks. Kids spend a whole year in Algebra I, and a whole year in Geometry. They may never fuse the two, yet at least some SAT questions combine Algebra and Geometry.
Another reason is that high school math makes use of intricate and often lengthy calculations. The SAT rarely does. When students are tempted to take out their calculators for what is bound to be a two-minute or more exercise, they should think again. Step back, for there is usually a creative, simple way to nail that problem in less than 60 seconds.
Rarely does a high school teacher teach "logic." The closest is typically geometry, which builds logical thinking through proofs. SAT never asks for proofs, yet it very much rewards logical thinking. Indeed, since 1996, ETS has called its test the "SAT I Reasoning Test." Buried in the math section are questions relying on "pure logic." The "housing lots" questions on the May 2000 SAT, profiled in the cover story in the April 2001 Time magazine, exemplify these logic questions.
Why SAT Writing Scores May Not Meet Expectations
This one is easy to discern. The essay, which counts for up to 40% of the student's writing score, is an open-ended question for which students have only 25 minutes to assess, craft, write, and edit. Few high schools demand such a task in such a short time. Typical English assignments allow students a full week to craft; typical English teachers reward flowery, circuitous prose. Rightly or wrongly, the SAT prompt makes such crafting almost impossible.
Multiple choice questions, which comprise the rest of the Writing test, tend to correlate well with students' ability to recognize grammar errors, improve sentences, and improve paragraphs. However, since many of these skills are introduced in 5th and 6th grade, a student who never got the basics, or whose school is not reinforcing them, often gets left behind.
"It's Just Test-Taking"
Notice that my analysis is void of discussing "test-taking." That is because for most students, I attribute little to it. The "tricks" and time management skills that can avoid test-taking impediments can be taught in 90 minutes. Kids these days are used to standardized tests. Once kids are familiar with the format of this test, the remainder is skill mastery.
So I conclude by imploring schools to teach mastery of the valuable skills tested on the SAT. If "teaching to the test" is a taboo phrase, that's understandable. Teach good skills that the test rewards. That will reward the kids.